While some aspects of development may be strongly influenced by biology, environmental influences may also play a role for example, the timing of when the onset of puberty occurs is largely the results of heredity, but environmental factors such as nutrition can also have an effect. Fetal programming implies that maternal and fetal factors that affect growth impart an indelible impression on adult affect fetal development gives plausibility to these results maternal effect of stress on the fetus was to subject women to a standard. Environmental and genetic impact on fetal development both environmental and genetic influences impact fetal development some substances (eg, folic acid, hormones, etc) have the biggest influence at sensitive periods during gestation.
Although maternal factors such a stress and stress hormones have been shown to play a significant role in pregnancy outcomes related to prematurity, their influence on fetal brain development is. Cigarette smoking effects on prenatal development essay 776 words 4 pages a teratogen is defined as, “any agent that can potentially cause a birth defect or negatively alter cognitive and behavioral outcomes” (santrock, 2013, p 82. The factors that place a pregnancy at risk can be divided into four categories: other risks to the fetus include a higher chance of having birth defects and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (fasd) eunice kennedy shriver national institute of child health & human development (2007.
Maternal nutrition during pregnancy, and how this impacts placental and fetal growth and metabolism, is of considerable interest to women, their partners and their health care professionals in developing countries, maternal undernutrition is a major factor. Exposure to excessive psychosocial stressors like domestic violence or the death or serious illness of a loved one can negatively affect the fetal and infant neurodevelopment, which can include delayed mental and motor development, difficult temperament, and impaired cognitive performance. Early child development is influenced by a wide variety of biological and environmental factors these factors influence a child both in positive ways that can enhance their development and in negative ways that can compromise developmental outcomes.
Environmental factors that include location, air quality, high levels of heavy metals such as lead or mercury, food poisoning and radiation can have a negative effect on intelligence genetic factors that negatively affect intelligence include downs syndrome, fragile x, fetal alcohol syndrome and conditions caused by pregnant women contracting. A small to moderate amount (2-4 drinks frequently) can lead to “fetal alcohol effect,” which increases the risk of miscarriage, developmental delay, and hyperactivity in the child. If one considers how negatively toxic substances such as cigarettes, alcohol, and cocaine affect the physical and mental state of a fully developed and healthy adult, it is possible to understand how devastating the effects these same substances have on a child in utero and throughout the course of their development another side effect.
Effects of exercise on pregnancy: positive exercise during pregnancy helps to alleviate many of the common problems of pregnancy it improves circulation, which helps prevent constipation, hemorrhoids, varicose veins, leg cramps, and swelling of the anklesit also prevents back pain by strengthening the muscles that support the back. Drinking alcohol in pregnancy (fetal alcohol effects) no 93 september 2016 according to the american college of obstetrics and gynecology, pregnant women should not drink any form of alcohol as it has been shown to cause serious and negative effects on the development of the baby (fetus. Stress and pregnancy (prenatal and perinatal) generally, stress during pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk for a number of negative outcomes in children this topic aims to provide greater understanding of the potential effects of maternal stress on the mother, the fetus, and the child’s development. Cognitive development, represented in thinking and learning abilities, is implicated notably by the interaction between nutrition, hereditary genes and the surrounding environment all these components/factors combined implicate the cognitive growth of children.
Pregnancy and prenatal development chapter 4 prepared by: debbie laffranchini from: papalia, olds, feldman • maternal factors –nutrition and maternal weight –malnutrition • maternal factors –drug intake •alcohol –fetal alcohol syndrome (fas) –5 in 1000 born in the us. Future research will need to explore the underlying mechanisms and experiential factors that may facilitate or impede fetal development and functioning teratogens traditionally, teratology is the study of physical damage in the embryo or fetus caused by prenatal exposure to foreign substances. Been collecting information focused on documenting normal human development and the factors that affect it our initial focus was on assessment of the developing by participants to the effect of “i know that when i do ‘x,’ the fetus will do ‘y’” alterations to fetal.